PHP (recursive acronym PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor, in Czech ""PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor"", originally Personal Home Page ) is a scripting programming language. It is intended primarily for programming dynamic web sites and web applications, e.g. in HTML, XHTML or WML format. PHP can also be used to create console and desktop applications. For desktop use, there is a compiled form of the language.

When using PHP for dynamic pages, the scripts are executed on the server side - the user receives the result of their activities. PHP script interpreter can be called from the command line, HTTP query methods or using web services. Syntax is inspired by several programming languages ​​(Perl, C, Pascal and Java). PHP is platform independent, the differences in various operating systems are limited to a few system-dependent functions and scripts can usually be transferred between operating systems without any modification.

PHP supports many libraries for various purposes - such as word processing, graphic processing, file handling, access to most database systems (including MySQL, ODBC, Oracle, PostgreSQL, MSSQL), support of a wide range of Internet protocols (HTTP, SMTP, SNMP, FTP, IMAP, POP3, LDAP, ...).

PHP is the most widespread scripting language for the web. It has become popular mainly for its easy use and a large number of functions. In combination with the Linux operating system, a database system (usually MySQL or PostgreSQL) and the Apache Web Server, PHP is often used to create web applications.


MySQL is a database system developed by the Swedish company MySQL AB, now owned by Sun Microsystems, a subsidiary of Oracle Corporation. Its main authors are Michael "Monty" Widenius and David Axmark. It is a successful pioneer of dual licensing - it is available under free GPL license as well as under commercial license.

MySQL is a multi-platform database. Communication with this database - as its name suggests - proceeds using SQL language. Like other SQL databases it is a dialect of this language with some extensions.

Due to its easy implementability (it can be installed on Linux, MS Windows, and other operating systems), performance, and mainly due to the fact that it is a free software, it has high proportion in currently used databases. A very popular and frequently deployed combination is a combination of Linux, MySQL, PHP and Apache as a web server basic software ("LAMP technology").

Since the beginning MySQL has been optimized primarily for speed, even at the cost of a certain simplification: it has simple backup methods, and until recently it did not support views, triggers and stored procedures. These features are being added in the last few years, when the most frequent users of this product - website programmers - started to miss them.


AJAX (Asynchronous JavaScript and XML) is a general term for technologies of interactive web application development that change the content of the site without having to reload. Unlike traditional Web applications these technologies provide a more user-friendly environment, however, they require the use of modern web browsers.

These applications are developed using technologies:

  • HTML (or XHTML) and CSS for the presentation of information;
  • DOM and JavaScript for display and dynamic changes of the information presented;
  • XMLHttpRequest for asynchronous data exchange with a web server (typically XML format is used, but you can use any other format including HTML, plain text, JSON or EBML).

Like DHTML, LAMP or SPA, Ajax is not really a specific individual technology, but a term denoting the use of several technologies together with a certain objective.

jQuery is a JavaScript library with a wide browser support that emphasizes the interaction between JavaScript and HTML. It has been released by John Resig in January 2006 in New York BarCamp.

jQuery is a free and open source software under the MIT license.

jQuery offers the following features:

  • Selection of DOM elements using an open cross-browser selector Sizzle engine, an offshoot of jQuery project
  • Feature for browsing and change of DOM (including support for 1-3 and basic XPath)
  • Events
  • Manipulation with CSS
  • Effects and Animations
  • AJAX
  • Scalability
  • Utilities - such as browser information or eachfunction
  • Javascript plugins